November 26, 2020


23 min read


(REDD) Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
REDD is a project that was first negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in the year 2005. The primary objective or mission of coming up with the plan was to be able to mitigate all the cases of climate change by ensuring that there was a reduction in the emissions that came in the form of greenhouse gases. This involves taking part in the enhancement of forest management especially in the countries that are still developing. Some decisions made under REDD were made witnessed in the year 2013 and ended in the year 2015 at a time when they had to put them down in the rulebook.
International Efforts in Strengthening Climate Governance and Finance
Researchers have conducted studies to find out the extent to which the forests have been degraded and the rate at which the greenhouse emissions are affecting the environment. The results show that about 29% of the greenhouse gases are emitted yearly, and this affects the climate change rate which will not be easy to control if it gets out of hand (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). In that case, the intention of reducing the emissions and also taking part in better land use has been a way of trying to meet all the objectives that have been set by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The idea and issue of international climate governance have become complex as most countries are now finding ways of ensuring that the climate is conducive to human survival. Many usually are not sure about the initiatives that they have put in place especially when they realize that the funds are not enough to make everything possible. For instance, some countries have opted to make use of regulatory instruments which are backed up by some market-based solutions that include the use of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol (Gabriele, 1996, p2281).
Some of the other efforts that have put in place to deal with the issue of climate governance and finance have been seen the proliferation of some specialized institutions that operate on an international basis while at the same dealing with the issue of climate change. In that case, there have been institutional fragmentations to ensure that each of them has a mission to accomplish when it comes to getting funds what will be used in providing an assurance that the greenhouses gases are reduced to a great extent. In addition to this, most international institutions are now beginning to realize that climate change is a serious issue and therefore needs to be put in place for sustainable development (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). This involves taking part in agriculture and also asking for more action from other sectors.
The other international efforts when it comes to climate governance have been experienced in the form of partnerships that are created daily in various countries and foreign clubs. The main aim, in this case, is to mitigate the instances of climate change and also learn how to adapt to climate-resilient development. The transitional actions that come in this form are therefore aiming at doing global governance of the climate and also making sure that all the negations that were established under UNFCCC are fulfilled. This comes because numbers of scholars have realized that partnerships and fragmentation of polycentric approaches have become more coherent in top-down initiative or by the use of monocentric governance systems.
The international efforts that focus on climate finance can be looked from the perspective of bodies such as UN which has sections that deal with the funds that are collected and aside from the management of climate. The most effective action, in this case, was seen at the time when there was a meeting in Paris to discuss some of the ways the climate would be managed by not only making practical actions by also collecting funds on how to make everything real and possible. In that case, some countries have set aside a kitty where funds are collected after every month to be able to implement all the initiatives that have been put in place when it comes to governance of climate change. For instance, the International Climate Change (ICC) committees have tried hard to make sure that countries are self-sufficient financially so that any command or rule that comes from the UN can be fulfilled without delay or compromise of any nature.
The past few years have shown the emergence of different forms of transnational climate actions which have raised some controversies and questions on whether the fragmentations that come due to climate change governance are real and applicable. This has led to some conflicts that arise between regimes that complain of the infinity that comes out of the transactional costs. There are also some Non-State actions that have led to public response acts that are currently seen to take part in unwarranted governance and privatization of all sorts (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). Therefore, there has been a need to be able to better all the transnational and international bodies as a way of encouraging the non-state actors to be able to make all the contributions that they have towards governance of the climate and making it be at the right state and nature.
Some scholars have been able to come up with international suggestions on how the climate can be governed and also financed for a better future. For instance, Gabriele (1996) stated that there was a need to come up with a registry that would be used to recognize all the non-state efforts when it comes to climate change mitigation initiatives. They also added that there is a need to identify actions of the small bodies that take part in creating awareness on some of the ways the climate can be kept at the right state without having to cut down trees that would, later on, leave the land bare. The idea of sharing knowledge and also maintaining a legit form of transparency was also a suggestion that came from the scholars as they needed to see an internationally recognizable act concerning climate change financing.
After all the suggestions were put across, others such as Bashmakov (1996) stated that all the registry made out of recognizing the non-state claimed governance bodies should be embedded to form a better or comprehensive framework that will be able to mobilize further actions. The new bodies will then be able to take part in information exchange and creating networks that will help them in getting funds for issues related to climate change mitigation. The bodies will also be a partisan of ensuring that the quality of the data is high and will be at the best position to verify the subnational initiatives that have been put in place as a way of taking part in international climate governance.
Potential Shaping of Future of Climate and Clean Energy
The international efforts aimed at mitigating climate change seem to be beneficial when looked from the perspective of the future implications. The efforts have been put across to be able to have clean energy and also a climate that is conducive to human survival. Some of the initiatives that have been put in place are in the form of Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement and also the REDD initiatives (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). All countries have their ways of implementing these initiatives, and there is a lot of determination to see that everything will be successful. Many scholars desired to have a picture of the way the climate will be in the future with most of them having speculations of the forms of energy is clean, and also the climate change process is lower than they have been.
The efforts will, therefore, shape the future of climate and clean energy making everyone to adapt to the initiative that will be put in place. The future will have a climate characteristic that is not vulnerable to all the harmful activities that lead to depletion of resources. This means that there will be a reduced rate of sea-level encroachment and also the issues of food insecurity will be alleviated to a great extent. For instance, all the REDD initiatives will have a positive impact in shaping the future of climate and having efficient forms of energy (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). The initiates will lead to having a climate that can be able to support all the livelihoods, take care of all the different points of the eco-systems and also ensure that there is a reservation of the different parts of biodiversity. This means there will be more discussions conducted between REDD and all the initiatives that have been set aside to increase the number of research projects in that line.
UNFCCC Efforts Based on a “Bottom-up” Focus
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) is a treaty that was put in place in the year 1992. The body was formed to be able to take part in the stabilization of all the different types of greenhouse gases and to reduce the effects that the gases would pose on the future people’s livelihoods. This was in the race to ensure that anthropogenic interference of the climate system was reduced and taken to sustainable levels. After the adoption of the treaty, it went ahead to ensure that there were no binding limits when it came to the use and emission of greenhouse gasses from the various counties that were a part of it. The treaty works alongside other treaties to make sure that the initiative is a success and that those who go against its provision are punished using the set standards.
UNFCCC has some efforts when it comes to implementing all the motives and intentions of REDD. The body had the determination of making sure that all the greenhouse gases were limited and replaced with gases that were clean and had no effect on biodiversity. Therefore in the race to make this possible, it was able to come up with Kyoto Protocol which was a body that was supposed to set targets on how the developing countries would be able to follow all the rules that are related to climate change.
UNFCCC also came up with Intended Nationally Determined Contributions body as a way of still meeting the objectives of the treaty. The body, in this case, was supposed to ensure that all the measures were put in place as a way of reducing emission and also doing away with events of deforestation were legit and acceptable by the law. This means that all countries were provided with the freedom to ensure that all the climate mitigation measures were appropriate from a national perspective. Also, they were supposed to be flexible and also adaptable after being tailored in all major sectors.
UNFCCC has been on the front line to make sure that all the matters regarding climate change are implemented in the best way possible without leaving aside any suggestions that seem to be factual and legit. In that case, the other efforts that it has made regarding climate change and having clean energy has been based on the creation of awareness. The awareness has been on making all the stakeholders and government institutions to realize that there is a problem that needs to be solved and if it gets out of hand, then the future will not be better for anyone (Bashmakov, 1996, p58). The awareness programs have been aired on televisions via different media houses, and there have been campaigns and days set aside to make everyone realize the benefits of mitigating climate change.
UNFCCC has also tried to make a mainstream of its objectives concerning all the national planning and development processes. All countries have the mission of developing and getting to a high status and industrialization is the order of the day and technology is the main driving force of the economy. As all these initiatives are being put in place, UNFCCC wants the officials and people responsible for implementing the ideas of having clean gases being emitted into the air at all times. The buildings and industries that are coming up from the planning processes are supposed to be able to put in place mechanisms that will do away with the greenhouse gases. The plans that the government and stakeholders are developing are supposed to do away with the issues of deforestation. There are better ways of getting land to construct buildings, and they include reclaiming abandoned land and rehabilitating them to a state that can be used by all.
The efforts that have been put in place by UNFCCC include the creation of better and stable links between national and subnational governments that have plans oriented to climate change. Most of the subnational governments have been in the front line to make sure that the initiatives and programs related to climate change mitigation are handled using the available resources (Bashmakov, 1996, p50). They act as the executing bodies since they are much closer to the industries and sections that tend to release too much greenhouse gases. For instance, the industries that take part in the processing of coal products emit too much carbon dioxide, and this poses a great danger to those who are living in such areas.
There have been some climate policies set aside by UNFCCC, and most of them need to be implemented on a monthly basis. UNFCCC, therefore, makes this possible by using personal and agencies working in the climate change mitigation departments to be able to make everything a reality. A lot of teamwork is needed in making such initiatives possible because they are worldwide. For instance, the policies have been facing a problem of resource constraints which need the national governments to intervene to provide finances and the necessary support in that matter. The amount of time required for this to take place is determined by the body as it has all the details concerning the nature and extent of environmental destruction.
UNFCCC has been directing the newly allocated funds to the all the developing countries so that they can be in the position of supporting the initiatives that have been put in place when it comes to climate change (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). All the industrialized nations have been attached to an agreement that was formed under the convention to support all the activities that involve in climate change mitigating concerning the developing counties. They have therefore been able to offer financial support to the countries since they cannot depend on themselves. The financial aid is done by making use of grants and loans that are managed by Global Environment Facility. The industrialized countries have also tried to share all that they have regarding technicality so that the developing countries can be at per with the essay writers goals set in that line.
UNFCCC also ensures that all the developing and industrialized countries submit a report on their climate change initiatives and measures that they have put in place with respect whatever has been set out in the Kyoto Protocol (Baranov, 1994, p80). The countries are also urged to avail a report of the inventory based on the greenhouse missions while using 1990 as the base year. This means that each state is supposed to show an improvement whenever it is submitting a report. All the developing countries are supposed to adopt all the climate change initiatives and also be able to assess the impact of being in line with the protocols that have been set. Those counties that show positive progress are supposed to share the same strategies with countries that have not been able to meet the established standards of climate change mitigation. UNFCCC acknowledges the fact that there are countries that are vulnerable to climate change and therefore makes sure that it has come up with special calls that will help in dealing with the consequences.
Standards, Methodologies, Empirical Evidence and Science Content.
Climate change mitigation refers to the actions that have been put in place to reduce the extent or the long-term effects of the transformations in climate. Mitigation involves cutting the activities of the humans when it comes to the emission of greenhouse gasses. Mitigation is a move that many organization and individuals have been trying to achieve since the long-term effects of the activity are always not friendly (Baranov, 1994, p80). Some nations have always tried to increase the number of carbon sinks by taking part in reforestation activities. This is according to the needs and demands of REDD which focuses on reduction in deforestation.
REDD is also on the notion that people should find a way of adapting to the global warming so that they can be able to manage all the impacts that come along with it. Global warming has been proved to be an irreversible process, and that means people have to be ready to face the consequence of the process. The best way to do this is by making sure that there are better ways of being in line with the requirements and needs to identify the factors that will lead to its reduction. For example, some nations have gone ahead to construct dikes as a way of responding to the sea levels that are increasing rapidly.
Some of the other climate mitigation approaches include doing away with all the activities the lead to the excessive emission of carbon that entails the nuclear energy and adopting better and renewable sources of energy that such as solar energy and wind energy. There is also the expansion of forests to ensure that the carbon sinks are many and that the entire carbons dioxide is removed from the atmosphere (Baranov, 1994, p85). The forest is the best carbon sinks, and therefore all governments should try and come up with a way in which they can be able to maintain high standards of the environment. Energy efficiency has been a better a way of mitigating climate change because it means the people will be using the current sources of energy in suitable ways. Buildings should be insulated as a way of promoting energy efficiency especially when the process of geoengineering is put in place.
UNFCCC has been known to be the primary treaty when it comes to climate mitigation, and that means it should be embraced and all the rules that it avails should be implied as fast as possible. The climate is changing at a faster rate than the speed that people are applying to take it down. For instance, in the year 2010, all those who had agreed to be parties of UNFCCC came up with a campaign that was supposed to reduce the global warming effect to below 2 degree Celsius which was relative amount while focusing on the pre-industrial levels (Baranov, 1994, p89).
According to scientists, the 2 degree Celsius target can only be attained if the annual global emissions are taken down before the year 2020. The year 2050 should have the emissions being at levels that are 50% lower than they have been over the past the ten decades (Baranov, 1994, p90). Even though all these initiatives are already under an implementation process, analysis from the United Nations Environment Programme stated that the policies are too weak and therefore meeting the target will not be an easy task. These claims came after research that they conducted to determine the number of countries that are in line with the initiative. They realized that only 5% of the nations that signed the treaty are doing all that they can to make everything a success. Global warming is affecting the whole planet, and that means all the countries should be participants when it comes to bringing it down. Some companies are now providing volunteering services to make sure that climate change mitigation is a daily activity and it is taken as a regular event that people should accept as part of their life.
Human activities that entail the burning of coal and different components of the oil are the main factors that increase the rate at which the earth is becoming warm. The gasses that trap heat in the atmosphere will keep on growing so long as humans are taking part in activities that promote them. The gases will remain constant without any change because industrialization is real and people are keeping on cutting down trees as they are looking for space to construction companies and residential houses. The impact of the warming is common in many places, and some people have lost their lives due to the adverse effects that it poses (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 6). There are also those who have had the destruction of property as a result of global warming. The global warming has led to increased floods and landslides, and therefore many have fallen victims of such acts. Companies that take part in ground-breaking are also increasing the vulnerability of the earth is prone to earthquakes. Earthquakes are known to have adverse effects as they lead to many people losing their properties.
Many organizations are trying to reduce the impacts of climate change, but the real thing is that it is an issue or matter which cannot be avoided at all. The most severe effects of the process can only be avoided if people decide to live according to the set standards. The time that is available to make all the changes is limited as the number of industries is also growing every day. This means that the consequences of global warming and climate change are also getting too high levels. Some vehicles are currently being manufactured, and they seem to be ecologically friendly because they do not affect the environment with the emissions (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 6). They make use of clean gas and also use renewable sources of energy like solar. The problem is that the companies and organizations that are producing the vehicles are also emitting the greenhouse gases as they are taking part in the manufacturing processes.
The climate has been changing over the past few years, and there are some factors that have been used to show the kind of activity that is going on. There is climate change mitigation programs have been set up to make sure that the changes do not get out of hand. Those who are responsible for the changes in climate are not able to find out some of the ways they can make the environment to get back to the original state since they lack the best initiatives to put in place.
From empirical research conducted by NASA, there was evidence of climate change, and this was shown by the warming of the entire atmosphere. The greenhouse gases are leading to global warming while the trees that have been cut down due to land expansion activities that have left the land bear and food insecurity has become a significant problem. The global rise of temperatures is one of the empirical evidence that the climate change is real and is taking place at a fast rate. The estimated surface temperature of the planet is about 2.0 degrees Fahrenheit, and this has been rising from the 19th century (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 12). This change has been driven by the rising amounts of carbon dioxide. There are also other human emissions that have facilitated climate change, and they include chlorofluorocarbons.
The past 36 years has experienced significant warming cases with the year 2001 being on top of the list when it comes to the number of emissions. 2016 was also among the warmest years except June which is commonly known as the coldest months of the year. The oceans are also becoming warm, and this is another indication of the fact that climate change is rapid and is getting to uncontrollable heights. The oceans have taken much of the heat to a state where it is currently standing at 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit.
The shirking ice sheets are also a sign of global warming where Greenland and even the Antarctic ice sheets have ended up showing a decrease in mass. NASA availed some data that showed Greenland had lost over 250 cubic kilometers of ice between the year 2002 and the year 2006. On the other hand, Antarctic lost over 152 cubic kilometers of ice in the same years. The loss of the ice is a clear indication that they are melting away due to the warmth and hence the ocean levels are going to rise (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 7). The process of glacial retreat is taking place in some raised lands such as the Alpos, Alaska, Andes, Himalayas and also in some parts of Africa.
The snow cover has also decreased in that the climate has become warm and they are also melting away to give room for the heat increasing at an uncontrollable rate. According to empirical evidence coming from the satellite, the Northern Hemisphere shows a decrease in the ice cover as this has been happening rapidly over the past five decades. The sea level is also rising rapidly, and this can be seen from the 8 inches rise over the past few centuries. This is followed by the arctic seas which have shown a decline due to the high temperatures. Ocean acidification is the clear proof that climate change needs to undergo a mitigation process to make it get back to a normal or original state. The industrial revolution led to an increased level of acidity in the surface oceans by 30 percent (Government of Russia 1995, p56). The fact that humans are taking part in activities that lead to the emission of more carbon dioxide shows that the acidity is not likely to go down.
Employ Case Studies
There have some case studies conducted to check on the rate at which countries and regions in Russia have adopted the climate change initiatives since it is the most affected when it comes to such events. Russia has been trying hard to comply with the set standards and all the protocols that aim at mitigating issues of climate change since it is among the most industrialized nations (Gritsevich, 1996, p9). A case study on An Industrial Energy Efficient Program at the “Moscabelmet” Company in Russia is an example of some of the ways the country has been trying to mitigate matters related to climate change.
According to the case study, there is a need to maintain focus on energy efficiency having in mind that it is an important issue when it comes to economic health concerning industrial enterprise. The Russia enterprises have been able to increase the rate at which they are maintaining energy efficiency to be able to gain economic stability and rapid growth in various sectors. Moscabelmet is a company in Russia known in the production of aluminium and copper commodities. The company has over 1500 workers, and each of them is working in a sector that makes use of energy in the most efficient manner (Gritsevich, 1996, p9). The company is energy-intensive, and that means it consumes over 55 million kWh and 549,000 Gj of heat. This high consumption of heat energy to the depletion of natural resources as it tries to maintain its relevance and to meet the demand of the people as much as it can.
The company has been promoting the activities of climate change mitigation by coming up with an information system that is used in running all the energy consuming facilities. Also, the company also came up with an energy monitoring system so that it can be able to stop areas that seem to use a lot of energy at a time. The company has also maintained the fact that people are supposed to use vehicles that are emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere while they are heading to work. The main aim is to make sure that it acts as an example to all other countries and companies that have the intention of mitigating climate change (Millhone, 1997, p34). The company also takes part in an evaluation of how it has been able to make the moves of climate change mitigation a success. The assessments make it able to identify the areas that need an adjustment and also compare it with provisions of UNFCCC.
After taking part in such activities, the company has been able to make the country to gain economically. Some of the improvements that have been seen in Russia after putting in place the climate change mitigation programs are that most of the companies have been able to reduce the production process. This is where small amounts of money are needed to make sure that the plants running the heat producing machines are replaced (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). There is also a reduction in the production of water that usually comes from the industries. There has been the installation of return water temperature controls when it comes to the optimization of hot water. Almost all shops in the industries have been installed with machines that control the energy intensity as a way of using energy more efficiently.
The country has also experienced some environmental benefits after putting in place all the initiatives and ideas that came from Moscablemet company. These benefits can be observed when it comes to the emission of greenhouse and cutting down of trees in the process of deforestation. There has been a reduction in the emissions as they are only indirectly taking place since the annual consumption of energy in the firms has also gone down. The reduction in the use of consumption of potable water has also led to a decrease in the discharge of waste and other materials that are known to pollute the environment. At the moment, Moscabelmet is known as the model company when it comes to the reduction of cost and emission of greenhouse gasses in the country.
Russia intends to take over the technique that has been used by the company so that it can expand it further. This mesa that it realized the benefits of having a clean nation that has no polluted environments and therefore wants to maintain it. For the project to be expanded the county has had to put in place some measures. For instance, it has to do an energy audit of all the places that seem to be experiencing great cases of pollution and emissions. The audits will also cut across areas that are vulnerable to deforestation and environment degradation. There will be a need to ensure that all the energy monitoring systems are developed and implemented as per the set rules and standards. The enterprise energy will also need to be restructured depending on the findings that will come out of the audits that will be conducted in the year. The operating regimes will need to be changed to be able to install those that have been found to be efficient. An automated energy control system will need to be introduced to be able to monitor all the changes that are taking place in the various fields of operation.
Even though there is a need to expand the various fields of operation hence it comes to climate change mitigation; some challenges might be first in making it a success. One of the difficulties, in this case, would be lack of funding since most of the climate change mitigation programs need a lot of financial needs. Lack of experience is the other barrier that implements the mitigation process to be difficult (Goic, 2011, p878). There are instances when the government needs to provide people with incentives so that they can be motivated and take part in the activities that help in reduction of environmentally unfriendly gases. Without the incentives, the government is not likely to be able to make the public to behave as per the rules that have been drafted.
In conclusion, for the world to have a touch of sustainable future, it will have to first focus on the economic incentives which are likely to reconcile with the environment and the nature of human well-being. There should be the promotion of conservation efforts that will help in ensuring that there is an aspect of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). Most of the economic forces have led to an increased level of emission, and that has facilitated to over 20% of the greenhouse gases. Theretofore there is a need to embrace REDD because it seeks to address all the problems that have been caused by emission and deforestation activities. This means that forests are supposed to be valued as ecosystems that are living and those that are used to sink all the carbon that is already in the atmosphere. Conservation is supposed to be applied in almost all areas because it is commonly known to be an economic activity which is available and helpful to the environment.
The other reason as to why people should embrace the provision of REDD is the fact that it is a way of getting only to handle emissions that are verifiable and that also promotes activities that benefit the forest and the people who are depending on the forests as a source of income and living. REDD can alleviate the crisis at hand in that all the forests that have been cut down will be restored to create more room for carbon sinking options. In short, there is a need to embrace this initiative because it works on the perspective of reducing leakage of the emissions, provides permanence in environmental control and also adds some of the options that people can use to meet or attain the same goals without affecting the ecological biodiversity.

Baranov, B 1994, “Automation Control System and Electric Power Quality Check at Moscabelmet” In Energy Efficiency, vol. 1, no.3.
Bashmakov, II 1996, System of Institutional Measures to Stimulate Energy Efficiency in Russia as a Part of the GHG Mitigation Strategy, CENEf, Moscow.
Center for Energy Efficiency 1996, Russian Energy Picture, July-September CENEf, Moscow.
Government of Russia 1995. Energy Strategy of Russia. Major Provisions. Moscow.
Gritsevich, I 1996, “Concept of Russian Federation Transition to Sustainable Development.” In Energy Efficiency, vol. 3, no. 10.
Millhone, J P 1997, Report to Joint Coordinating Committee on the US-Russian Climate Change Country Study. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Gabriele CH 1996, “Detecting Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change with an Optimal Fingerprint Method,” Journal of Climate, 2281-2306
Goic, R 2011, “A Review of Climate Change, mitigation and adaptation.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Vol 16, Issue 1, pp 878-897

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